Most pigmentation is caused by inflammatory processes in the skin. This is referred to as PIP – Post Inflammatory Pigmentation. The solution is to remove the cause of inflammation, be that excessive exposure to the sun, or dehydration of the skin, or skin care containing caustic ingredients that leave the skin in a constant state of micro-inflammation. If the source of inflammation is removed the skin will, as it renews itself over time, shed the discoloured cells, revealing normal colour cells. Certain ingredients such as Bearberry Extract, Arbutin and some others can help speed this process.
Deep dermal pigmentation may be caused by hormonal activity, medication or other processes in the skin. Such conditions are very difficult to treat. They require professional diagnosis and advice regarding suitable treatment options.